Detect, Prevent, and Screen for Cervical Cancer

Woman in a yellow shirt consulting with a female doctor

If detected early, cervical cancer is one of the most successfully treatable cancers. Learn the signs and symptoms and how to talk to your doctor about a cancer screening plan.

Are you at risk?

Several risk factors increase your chance of developing cervical cancer, but screenings help catch it early. Risk factors include:

  • Previous infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) or chlamydia
  • Having many sexual partners or one high-risk partner
  • Smoking
  • Having a weakened immune system
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives
  • Having multiple full-term pregnancies or a full-term pregnancy under age 20
  • Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Family history of cervical cancer

Signs, symptoms and screening

Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms. More advanced cervical cancer signs include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain

Cervical cancer can be found early and sometimes even prevented through regular screenings like the Pap test and the HPV test. Early detection is key to successful treatment. Talk to your doctor about which testing option is right for you.

Prevention is better than a cure

Preventing disease is more effective than dealing with it after a diagnosis. To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:

  • Ask your doctor whether the HPV vaccine is right for you. Vaccination helps prevent HPV infection and may reduce your risk of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers.
  • Have routine Pap tests. Pap tests can detect precancerous cervix conditions so a provider can monitor or treat them to prevent cancer. Most medical organizations suggest beginning routine Pap tests at age 21 and repeating them every few years.
  • Practice safe sex. Use a condom every time you have sex and limit your number of sexual partners to prevent sexually transmitted infections.
  • Don't smoke. If you do smoke, talk to your doctor about strategies to help you quit.

Get to the root of cervical cancer

It isn’t clear what causes cervical cancer, but it’s certain HPV plays a role. The CDC recommends the HPV vaccine for girls and boys (since it can prevent certain male cancers as well) according to this schedule:

  • Ages 11-14: two doses of the HPV vaccine at least six months apart
  • Ages 15-26 who are just beginning the series: three doses of the vaccine
  • HPV vaccination is not recommended for anyone over 26 years old

Sources: The American Cancer Society,, Mayo Clinic, CDC